Integrated Report 2021

56.4. Market risk (interest rate risk in the trading book and currency risk)

Market risk management organization

The operations of BNP Paribas Bank Polska S.A. are recorded in the trading and in the banking book. In relation to market risk, covering interest risk in the trading book and the currency risk, the Bank is sensitive for changes in market interest rates, foreign exchange rates, security prices and implied volatility of option instruments leading to changes in the result on measurement of the financial instruments present value. The risk of adverse changes in the value, driven by the aforesaid factors, is recognised by the Bank as market risk. The risk is monitored and managed with the use of the defined and specially designed tools and measures.

In order to reflect the characteristics of financial market transactions appropriately, i.e. the intentions of the parties entering into the transactions, the major risks and the accounting treatment, the Bank allocates all on- and off-balance sheet items to the banking or trading book. Detailed allocation criteria are established in the documents (“policies” and “methodologies”) adopted by resolutions of the Management Board of the Bank and defining the purpose of keeping each book, the profile and types of risks assumed by the Bank, the measurement and mitigation methods as well as the authorizations and place of each organizational unit of the Bank in the risk generation, measurement, mitigation and reporting process.

The process of concluding transactions and their recording, as well as risk level supervision and adoption of risk limits is performed by independent units. In line with the long-term strategy adopted by the Bank, as well as with its financial plan, the Supervisory Board determines the Bank’s risk tolerance, i.e. an acceptable risk level and profile, which is subsequently allocated by the Risk Management Committee. The Financial Markets Division takes responsibility for daily operational management of the risk inherent in trading book in line with the defined market risk limits, including limits related to interest rate in the trading book and the currency risk, which is managed at a centralized level for the entire Bank. The Financial and Counterparty Risk Department are in charge of measuring and reporting risk and limit overrides. Additionally, the Financial and Counterparty Risk Department ensures that financial instruments are measured properly. The management result is calculated by the Financial Market Transactions Monitoring Unit, while transactions are recorded and settled by the Financial Market Transactions Processing Department. The system of limit override acceptance is hierarchical. It depends on the period of such override and its scale, and is managed by the Division head or Members of the Bank’s Management Board exercising supervision of the Risk Function and the function responsible for the risk override. Irrespective of the process, all limit overrides are reported immediately after they occur and discussed at monthly Risk Management Committee meetings.

Interest rate risk in the trading book

The Bank’s trading activities are supplementary, as they support sales of financial products to corporate customers, non-banking financial customers (directly) and retail customers (through structured products, which are officially classified into the banking book). The Bank opens its own positions, thus generating income on short-term changes in price parameters (foreign currency rates or interest rates), while maintaining the exposure within the adopted risk limits. The Bank offers commodity instruments but does not maintain open position in commodity market.

As part of the interest rate risk exposure, which is the key exposure in the trading portfolio, the Bank could enter into IRS, OIS, CIRS, FRA and basis swap transactions and purchase and sale of foreign currency options on interest options. The interest rate risk was also determined by positions resulting from FX swap and FX Forward transactions. In 2021, as part of internal risk limits, the Bank maintained an open option position in order to optimize the result, i.e. generate additional benefits due to the lack of immediate closing of customer positions by reverse transactions on the interbank market. The priority of the Bank is to hedge the interest rate risk and currency risk.

Sensitivity of items to shifts in the yield curve and the value at risk (VaR – which is a measure that estimates the potential loss arising from a change in the market value of a portfolio under specified assumptions about market parameters, over a specified period of time and with specified probability) are the key measures of the interest rate risk in the trading portfolio. Additionally, the Bank conducts sensitivity analyses, where the changes in interest rates are more considerable than those typically observed (stress tests).

In 2021, the interest rate risk for PLN items, measured by sensitivity to shifts in the yield curve in the trading portfolio, was lower (PLN 25 thousand on average) than in 2020 (PLN 54 thousand).

The following table presents the interest rate risk in the trading book based on BPV (Basis Point Value, in PLN ‘000):

31.12.2021 31.12.2020
31.12. 10 (14) 89 (42)
average 25 (38) 54 (32)
max 107 209 110 24
min (40) (87) (20) (84)
* a measure of the sensitivity of instrument measurement to a shift in interest rate curves by 1 basis point


Interest rate risk exposure in the trading book measured by sensitivity to a 1 basis point movement in interest rate curves and currency risk in 2021 was maintained at a relatively low level as a result of the crisis situation triggered by COVID-19 pandemic and increasing uncertainty about future market behaviour. In contrast, the exposure measured with the use of the external VaR limit decreased as compared to the previous year and averaged 13% of the granted limit (compared to 24% a year earlier). The risk was mainly due to the open interest rate position, with an average utilization of the VaR for this risk was at the level of 17% of the granted limit.

Currency risk

The Bank, while measuring the currency risk, limits the maximum allowable open currency position at the individual currency level and for all currencies combined, and applies the value at risk method (VaR). For purposes of currency risk monitoring, it is assumed that VaR is determined with a 99% confidence level and that a position is maintained for one day. The VaR methodology is validated on an annual basis by means of an analysis which involves a comparison of the forecast figures and those determined on the basis of actual changes in foreign exchange rates, assuming that the currency position is maintained (back-testing). The comparative period covers the last 250 business days. The VaR model was back-tested in 2021 and the verification results indicate that there is no necessity to make any adjustments.

Foreign currency transactions used for management of the Bank’s currency position were characterized by a stable exposure and a low risk. The risk resulting from foreign currency transactions with customers was offset on the inter-bank market. The level of risk exposure was maintained at a low level, i.e. around 14% of the utilisation of the available VaR limit and, as in the previous year, this risk did not make a significant contribution to the overall risk level. The Bank maintained a small open position in foreign exchange options to ensure the serviceability of customer transactions, for which the exposure was limited through a set of additional dedicated limits for the Greek gamma and vega ratios.

The following table presents currency risk of the Bank expressed as FX VaR (in PLN ’000):

FX VaR* 31.12.2021 31.12.2020
average 354 276
max 1,725 3,916
min 71 71
* The Bank uses a historical exponential method which assumes the confidence level 99% and that positions are held for 1 day


The table below presents the currency structure of assets and liabilities in their balance sheet value expressed in PLN ‘000:

31.12.2021 31.12.2020
Currency position items Assets Liabilities Assets Liabilities
USD 682,340 4,168,644 752,899 4,060,837
GBP 104,132 353,637 116,988 345,801
CHF 4,441,901 2,160,507 4,852,886 859,008
EUR 12,920,246 17,434,157 12,713,450 15,425,756
Other convertible currencies 99,178 270,054 135,302 254,236
PLN 113,529,684 107,390,482 101,005,763 98,631,650
Total 131,777,481 131,777,481 119,577,288 119,577,288


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